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HISTORY 4A06A Racism&Human Rights In Canada

Academic Year: Fall 2017

Term: Multiterm

Day/Evening: D

Instructor: Dr. Ruth Frager

Email: frager@mcmaster.ca

Office: Chester New Hall 631

Phone: 905-525-9140 x 24133

Website:

Office Hours: 1st term: Mondays, 3:30-5:30; 2nd term: Mondays, 1:30-3:30



Course Objectives:

Course Description:

This course examines various forms of ethnic and racist prejudice and discrimination in post-Confederation Canadian history, as well as the efforts of various human rights advocates. This includes exploring attitudes toward immigrants from Asia and from Southern and Eastern Europe, in addition to attitudes toward African Canadians and indigenous peoples.

Course Objectives:

Students will learn to analyze key aspects of the history of racism and human rights while building their critical thinking skills. The assignments are meant not only to build students’ knowledge of this field but also to encourage students to hone their writing and speaking abilities.


Textbooks, Materials & Fees:

The main textbook is:

Constance Backhouse, Colour-Coded: A Legal History of Racism in Canada, 1900-1950 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999).

The other required readings will either be available online via the library or will be posted on the course website (on Avenue to Learn).


Method of Assessment:

Class Participation.................................20%

First Essay (approx. 2,500 words).........25%

In-Class Test.........................................20%

Second Essay (approx. 5,000 words).....35%


Policy on Missed Work, Extensions, and Late Penalties:

Students are expected to hand in all written work in class on the specific due date. Late essays will be penalized 3% per day (including Saturdays and Sundays) in order to be fair to those students who hand their work in on time.  Extensions or other accommodations will be determined by the instructor and will normally only be considered if supported by appropriate documentation.


Please Note the Following Policies and Statements:

Academic Dishonesty

You are expected to exhibit honesty and use ethical behaviour in all aspects of the learning process. Academic credentials you earn are rooted in principles of honesty and academic integrity.

Academic dishonesty is to knowingly act or fail to act in a way that results or could result in unearned academic credit or advantage. This behaviour can result in serious consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment, loss of credit with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: "Grade of F assigned for academic dishonesty"), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university.

It is your responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty. For information on the various types of academic dishonesty please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy, located at www.mcmaster.ca/academicintegrity

The following illustrates only three forms of academic dishonesty:

  1. Plagiarism, e.g. the submission of work that is not one’s own or for which other credit has been obtained.
  2. Improper collaboration in group work.
  3. Copying or using unauthorized aids in tests and examinations.

Email correspondence policy

It is the policy of the Faculty of Humanities that all email communication sent from students to instructors (including TAs), and from students to staff, must originate from each student’s own McMaster University email account. This policy protects confidentiality and confirms the identity of the student.  Instructors will delete emails that do not originate from a McMaster email account.

Modification of course outlines

The University reserves the right to change dates and/or deadlines etc. for any or all courses in the case of an emergency situation or labour disruption or civil unrest/disobedience, etc. If a modification becomes necessary, reasonable notice and communication with the students will be given with an explanation and the opportunity to comment on changes. Any significant changes should be made in consultation with the Department Chair.

McMaster Student Absence Form (MSAF)

In the event of an absence for medical or other reasons, students should review and follow the Academic Regulation in the Undergraduate Calendar Requests for Relief for Missed Academic Term Work. Please note these regulations have changed beginning Fall 2015. You can find information at mcmaster.ca/msaf/. If you have any questions about the MSAF, please contact your Associate Dean's office.

Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities

Students who require academic accommodation must contact Student Accessibility Services (SAS) to make arrangements with a Program Coordinator. Academic accommodations must be arranged for each term of study. Student Accessibility Services can be contacted by phone 905-525-9140 ext. 28652 or e-mail sas@mcmaster.ca. For further information, consult McMaster University's Policy for Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities.

Academic Accommodation for Religious, Indigenous and Spiritual Observances

Students requiring academic accommodation based on religion and spiritual observances should follow the procedures set out in the Course Calendar or by their respective Faculty. In most cases, the student should contact his or her professor or academic advisor as soon as possible to arrange accommodations for classes, assignments, tests and examinations that might be affected by a religious holiday or spiritual observance.


Topics and Readings:

Weekly Schedule:

Please note:

* A reading that is preceded by a single asterisk is available online via the McMaster Library Catalogue (as an e-book or an article in an e-Journal)

**A reading that is preceded by a double asterisk is available as a pdf file on our Avenue to Learn site.

1) 11 September: Introduction to Key Themes in the History of Racism and

Human Rights in Canada

Part A: From the 1800s to the Second World War

2) 18 September: Indigenous Peoples (part 1)

Required:

- J.R. Miller, Canada and the Aboriginal Peoples, 1867-1927 (Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 1997)

This pamphlet is available on the internet. Please go to

www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/cha-shc/index-e.html and then click on “Historical

Booklets.”

Then scroll down the list of booklets and click on Miller’s title.

- Backhouse, Introduction, pp. 3-17; Chap. 2 (“Race Definition Run Amuck: `Slaying the Dragon of Eskimo Status’ in Re Eskimos, 1939"), pp. 18-56.

 

Recommended:

- Peter S. Li, “Race and Ethnicity,” in Peter S. Li, ed., Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 3-21.

- Vic Satzewich, “Race, Racism and Racialization: Contested Concepts,” in Vic Satzewich, ed., Racism and Social Inequality in Canada (Toronto: Thompson Educational Publications, 1998), pp. 25-45.

 

 

3) 25 September: Indigenous Peoples (part 2)

 

Required:

- Backhouse, Chap. 3 (“`Bedecked in Gaudy Feathers’: The Legal Prohibition of Aboriginal Dance: Wanduta’s Trial, Manitoba, 1903"), pp. 56-103; and Chap. 4 (“`They Are a People Unacquainted with Subordination’ — First Nations’ Sovereignty Claims: Sero v Gault, Ontario, 1921"), pp. 103-132.

- **Mary-Ellen Kelm, Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia, 1900-50 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1998), Chap. 4 (“A `Scandalous Procession’: Residential Schooling and the Reformation of Aboriginal Bodies”), pp. 57-80.

 

Recommended:

- Sarah Carter, “Two Acres and a Cow: `Peasant’ Farming for the Indians of the Northwest, 1889-1897,” in J.R. Miller, ed., Sweet Promises: A Reader on Indian-White Relations in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991), pp. 353-381.

- J.R. Miller, Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), Chap. 6 (“`To Have the “Indian” Educated Out of Them’: Classroom and Class”), pp. 151-182; and Chap. 12 (“`You Ain’t My Boss’: Resistance”), pp. 343-374.

- *Linda Mahood and Vic Satzewich, “Indian Affairs and Band Governance: Deposing Indian Chiefs in Western Canada, 1896-1911,” Canadian Ethnic Studies, vol. 26, no. 1 (1994).

 

 

4) 2 October: “Nativism”

 

Required:

- Reg Whitaker, Canadian Immigration Policy Since Confederation (Ottawa: CHA, 1991) (pamphlet)

This pamphlet is available on the internet. Please go to

www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/cha-shc/index-e.html and then click on “Immigration and

Ethnicity in Canada Booklets.” Then scroll down the list of booklets and click on

Whitaker’s title.

- **Howard Palmer, Patterns of Prejudice: A History of Nativism in Alberta (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982): Introduction, pp. 5-17, and Chap. 1 (“Strangers and Stereotypes: The Rise of Nativism, 1880-1920"), pp. 17-61.

- *Vic Satzewich, “Whiteness Limited: Racialization and the Social Construction of `Peripheral Europeans,’” Histoire sociale/Social History, vol. 33, no. 66 (Nov. 2000), pp. 271-289.

 

Recommended:

- Angus McLaren, “Stemming the Flood of Defective Aliens,” in Barrington Walker, ed., The History of Immigration and Racism in Canada: Essential Readings (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc., 2008), pp. 189-204.

- Donald H. Avery, Reluctant Host: Canada’s Response to Immigrant Workers, 1896-1994 (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1995), Chap. 1 (“European Immigrant Workers and the Canadian Economy, 1896-1914"), pp. 20-43, and Chap. 3 (“European Immigrant Workers and Labour Protest in Peace and War, 1896-1919"), pp. 60-82.

- *Carmela Patrias, “Race, Employment Discrimination, and State Complicity in Wartime Canada, 1939-1945,” Labour/Le Travail vol. 59 (Spring 2007), pp. 9-41.

In order to find this item, search for the e-journal title “Labour” (without the quotation marks), noting the spelling. You will find two e-journals entitled “Labour,” and you want the Canadian journal. At present, the Canadian journal is the first one in this list of two.

 

(9-13 October: Reading Week)

 

5) 16 October: “Anti-Orientalism” (part 1)

 

Required:

- *W. Peter Ward, White Canada Forever: Popular Attitudes and Public Policy Toward Orientals in British Columbia (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002), Chap. 1 (“John Chinaman”), pp. 3-22; Chap. 2 (“The Roots of Animosity”), pp. 23-35; and Chap. 9 (“The Drive for a White B.C.”), pp. 168-169.

(Ward’s book was originally published in 1978.)

- *Gillian Creese, "Exclusion or Solidarity? Vancouver Workers Confront the `Oriental Problem,'" BC Studies, no. 80 (Winter 1988/89). (Reprinted in all three editions of Laurel Sefton MacDowell and Ian Radforth, eds., Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press)).

 

Recommended:

- Kay J. Anderson, “Creating Outsiders, 1875-1903,” in Barrington Walker, ed., The History of Immigration and Racism in Canada: Essential Readings (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc., 2008), pp. 90-105.

- *Lisa R. Mar, “The Tale of Lin Tee: Madness, Family Violence, and Lindsay’s Anti-Chinese Riot of 1919,” in Marlene Epp and Franca Iacovetta, eds., Sisters or Strangers?: Immigrant, Ethnic, and Racialized Women in Canadian History, second edition (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2016), pp. 64-83.

- Timothy J. Stanley, Contesting White Supremacy: School Segregation, Anti-Racism, and the Making of Chinese Canadians (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011), Chap. 1 (“The 1922-23 Students’ Strike”), pp. 20-44.

 

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23 OCTOBER: FINAL DATE FOR OBTAINING INSTRUCTOR'S APPROVAL FOR INDIVIDUAL ESSAY TOPICS

Students are urged to consult the instructor well before this date.

Students should be aware that only a very limited number of students will be able to sign

up for any one topic (on a first-come-first-served basis).

Please note that a face-to-face consultation is needed; email is not adequate.

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6) 23 October: “Anti-Orientalism” (part 2)

 

Required:

- *Alan Grove and Ross Lambertson, “Pawns of the Powerful: The Politics of Litigation in the Union Colliery Case,” BC Studies, no. 103 (Fall 1994), pp. 3-31.

- Backhouse, Chap. 5 (“`Mesalliances’ and the `Menace to White Women’s Virtue’: Yee Clun’s Opposition to the White Women’s Labour Law, Saskatchewan, 1924"), pp. 132-173.

- *Nilum Panesar, Yolande Pottie-Sherman, and Rima Wilkes, “The Komagata Through a Media Lens: Racial, Economic, and Political Threat in Newspaper Coverage of the 1914 Komagata Maru Affair,” Canadian Ethnic Studies, vol. 49, no. 1 (2017), pp. 85-101.

 

Recommended:

- Donald H. Avery, Reluctant Host, Chap. 2 (“Asian Immigrant Workers and British Columbia Society”), pp. 43-60.

- Ruth Compton Brouwer, “A Disgrace to `Christian Canada’: Protestant Foreign Missionary Concerns about the Treatment of South Asians in Canada, 1907-1940,” in Franca Iacovetta et al., eds., A Nation of Immigrants: Women, Workers, and Communities in Canadian History, 1840s-1960s (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998), pp. 361-384.

- *Vic Satzewich, “Racisms: The Reactions to Chinese Migrants in Canada at the Turn of the Century,” International Sociology, vol. 4, no. 3 (September 1989), pp. 311-327.

 

 

7) 30 October: African Canadians (part 1)

 

Required:

- Backhouse, Chap. 6 (“`It Will Be Quite an Object Lesson’: R. v Phillips and the Ku Klux Klan in Oakville, Ontario, 1930"), pp. 173-226, and Chap. 7 (“`Bitterly Disappointed’ at the Spread of `Colour-Bar Tactics’: Viola Desmond’s Challenge to Racial Segregation, Nova Scotia, 1946"), pp. 226-272.

- *Harold Martin Troper, “The Creek-Negroes of Oklahoma and Canadian Immigration, 1909-1911,” Canadian Historical Review, vol. 53, no. 3 (Sept 1972), pp. 272-289.

- *Melissa N. Shaw, “`Most Anxious to Serve their Country and King’: Black Canadians’ Fight to Enlist in WWI and Emerging Race Consciousness in Ontario, 1914-1919,” Histoire sociale: Social History, vol. 49, no. 100 (November 2016), pp. 543-580.

 

Recommended:

- Jason H. Silverman, “Mary Ann Shadd and the Search for Equality,” in Franca Iacovetta et al., eds., A Nation of Immigrants: Women, Workers, and Communities in Canadian History, 1840s-1960s (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998), pp. 101-115.

- *Kristin McLaren, “`We had no desire to be set apart’: Forced Segregation of Black Students in Canada West Public Schools and Myths of British Egalitarianism,” Histoire sociale/Social History, vol. 37, no. 73 (May 2004), pp. 27-50.

- Martin Robin, Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920-1940 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992), Chap 2 (“The Sasklan”), pp. 28-45, and Chap. 3 (“Glory Days”), pp. 45-87.

 

 

8) 6 November: African Canadians (part 2)

 

Required:

- *Sarah-Jane (Saje) Mathieu, “North of the Colour Line: Sleeping Car Porters and the Battle Against Jim Crow on Canadian Rails, 1880-1920,” Labour/Le Travail, vol. 47 (Spring 2001), pp. 9-41.

In order to find this item, search for the e-journal title “Labour” (without the quotation marks), noting the spelling. You will find two e-journals entitled “Labour,” and you want the Canadian journal. At present, the Canadian journal is the first one in this list of two.

- *David Goutor, “Drawing Different Lines of Colour: The Mainstream English Canadian Labour Movement’s Approach to Blacks and the Chinese, 1880-1914,” Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas, vol. 2, no. 1 (2005), pp. 55-76.

- *Pamela Sugiman, “Privilege and Oppression: The Configuration of Race, Gender, and Class in Southern Ontario Auto Plants, 1939 to 1949,” Labour/Le Travail, vol. 47 (Spring 2001), pp. 83-113.

 

 

 

 

Recommended:

- *James W.St.G. Walker, `Race,’ Rights and the Law in the Supreme Court of Canada:

Historical Case Studies (Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1997), Chap. 3

(“Christie v. York Corporation”), pp. 122-182.

- *Dionne Brand, "`We weren't allowed to go into factory work until Hitler started the war': The 1920s to the 1940s," in Peggy Bristow et al., eds., "We're Rooted Here and They Can't Pull Us Up": Essays in African Canadian Women's History, pp. 171-191.

- *Agnes Calliste, “Sleeping Car Porters in Canada: An Ethnically Submerged Split Labour Market,” Canadian Ethnic Studies, vol. 19, no. 1 (1987), pp. 1-20.

 

 

9) 13 November: Anti-Semitism

 

Required:

- *Ira Robinson, A History of Antisemitism in Canada (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2015), Chap. 4 (“The Jewish Problem Comes to Canada”), pp. 35-55.

- *Pierre Anctil, “Interlude of Hostility: Judeo-Christian Relations in Quebec in the Interwar Period, 1919-39,” in Alan Davies, ed., Antisemitism in Canada: History and Interpretation (Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1992), pp. 135-165.

- *Irving Abella and Harold Troper, “`The line must be drawn somewhere’: Canada and Jewish Refugees, 1933-1939,” Canadian Historical Review, vol. 60, no. 2 (June 1979). (Reprinted in Franca Iacovetta et al., eds., A Nation of Immigrants: Women, Workers, and Communities in Canadian History, 1840s-1960s (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998), pp. 412-445.)

 

Recommended:

- *David Zimmerman, “`Narrow-Minded People’: Canadian Universities and the Academic Refugee Crises, 1933-1941,” Canadian Historical Review, vol. 88, no. 2 (June 2007), pp. 291-315.

- *Janine Stingel, Social Discredit: Anti-Semitism, Social Credit, and the Jewish Response (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2000), Introduction, pp. 3-8, and Chap. 2 (“Social Credit and the Canadian Jewish Congress”), pp. 8-32.

- Alan Mendelson, Exiles from Nowhere: The Jews and the Canadian Elite (2008), Chap. 2 (“The Politicians: Henri Bourassa and Mackenzie King”), pp. 55-90.

 

 

Part B: From the Second World War to the 21st Century

 

 

10) 20 November: Human Rights Activism (part 1)

 

Required:

- Backhouse, Conclusion, pp. 272-281

- *Ross Lambertson, Repression and Resistance: Canadian Human Rights Activists, 1930-1960 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005), chapter 3 (“The Japanese-Deportation Issue”), pp. 106-142.

- *James W.St.G. Walker, `Race,’ Rights and the Law in the Supreme Court of Canada: Historical Case Studies (Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1997), Chap. 4 (“Noble and Wolf v. Alley”), pp. 182-246.

 

Recommended:

- J.L. Granatstein and Gregory A. Johnson, “The Evacuation of the Japanese Canadians, 1942: A Realistic Critique of the Received Version,” in Barrington Walker, ed., The History of Immigration and Racism in Canada: Essential Readings (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc., 2008), pp. 221-235.

- Stephanie Bangarth, “The Second World War and Canada’s Early Human Rights Movement: The Asian Canadian Experience,” in Janet Miron, ed., A History of Human Rights in Canada: Essential Issues (Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc., 2009), pp. 61-76.

- *Carmela Patrias, “Socialists, Jews, and the 1947 Saskatchewan Bill of Rights,” Canadian Historical Review, vol. 87, no. 2 (June 2006), pp. 265-292.

 

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FIRST ESSAY DUE MONDAY, 27 NOVEMBER

(The essay should be handed in at the start of the class.)

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11) 27 November: Film — Continuous Journey

(We may move to a bigger room for the film.)

 

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BRIEF DESCRIPTION (250-500 WORDS) OF THE MAJOR RESEARCH

PROJECT IS DUE MONDAY, 4 DECEMBER

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12) 4 December: Human Rights Activism (part 2)

 

Required:

- *Carmela Patrias and Ruth A. Frager, “`This Is Our Country, These Are Our Rights’: Minorities and the Origins of Ontario’s Human Rights Campaigns,” Canadian Historical Review, vol. 82, no.1 (March 2001), pp. 1-35.

- *Ross Lambertson, “The Dresden Story: Racism, Human Rights, and the Jewish Labour Committee of Canada,” Labour/Le Travail, vol. 47 (Spring 2001), pp. 43-83.

- *Dominique Clément, Human Rights in Canada: A History (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier Press, 2016), Chap. 3 (“Human Rights Beginnings”), pp. 73-87.

 

 

 

Recommended:

- Dominique Clément, Canada’s Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, 1937-82 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2008), Chap. 2 (“Canada’s Rights Revolution”), pp. 17-35.

- *Shirley Tillotson, "Human Rights Law as Prism: Women's Organizations, Unions, and Ontario's Female Employees Fair Remuneration Act, 1951," Canadian Historical Review, vol. 72, no. 4 (Dec. 1991), pp. 532-557.

- Daiva K. Stasiulis, “Minority Resistance in the Local State: Toronto in the 1970s and 1980s,” Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 12, no. 1 (Jan. 1989), pp. 63-83.

 

 

13) 8 January: Indigenous Peoples’ Protests

 

Required:

- **Alvin Finkel, Our Lives: Canada after 1945 (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1997), Chap. 10 (“Canada’s First People Rebel”), pp. 243-260.

- **Kiera L. Ladner, “Aysaka’paykinit: Contesting the Rope around the Nations’ Neck,” in Miriam Smith, ed., Group Politics and Social Movements in Canada, second edition (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014), pp. 227-253.

- **Darlene Abreu Ferreira, “Oil and Lubicons Don’t Mix: A Land Claim in Northern Alberta in Historical Perspective,” in Donald Avery and Roger Hall, eds., Coming of Age: Readings in Canadian History Since World War II (Toronto: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1996), pp. 263-293.

 

Recommended:

- Donald Purich, “The Future of Native Rights,” in Sweet Promises, pp. 421-441.

- Tony Hall, “Where Justice Lies: Aboriginal Rights and Wrongs in Temagami,” in Chad Gaffield, ed., Constructing Modern Canada: Readings in Post-Confederation History (Toronto: Copp Clark Longman Ltd, 1994), pp. 567-589.

- *Ken S. Coates, The Marshall Decision and Native Rights (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2000), Chap. 1 (“Of Eels, Judges, and Lobsters: The Marshall Challenge and the Supreme Court Decision”), pp. 3-21, and Chap. 2 (“Paying the Price for History: Mi’kmaq, Maliseet, and Colonists from Treaties to Irrelevance”), pp. 21-51.

 

 

14) 15 January: Multiculturalism and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms

 

Required:

- **Will Kymlicka, “The Merits of Multiculturalism,” in R. Douglas Francis and Donald B. Smith, eds., Readings in Canadian History: Post-Confederation (Toronto: Nelson Thomson Learning, 2002), pp. 480-489.

- **Frances Henry and Carol Tator, “State Policy and Practices as Racialized Discourse: Multiculturalism, the Charter, and Employment Equity,” in Peter S. Li, ed., Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1999), (second edition), pp. 88-116.

- **Sunera Thobani, Exalted Subjects: Studies in the Making of Race and Nation in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007), Chap. 4 (“Multiculturalism and the Liberalizing Nation”), pp. 143-175.

 

Recommended:

- Karl Peter, “The Myth of Multiculturalism and Other Political Fables,” in Jorgen Dahlie and Tissa Fernando, eds., Ethnicity, Power and Politics in Canada (Toronto: Methuen Publications, 1981), pp. 56-68.

- Peter S. Li, “The Multiculturalism Debate,” in Li, ed., Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 148-178.

- V. Seymour Wilson, “The Tapestry Vision of Canadian Multiculturalism,” in Donald Avery and Roger Hall, eds., Coming of Age: Readings in Canadian History Since World War II (Toronto: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1996), pp. 408-430.

 

Please note: subsequent classes will be devoted to presentations and discussions based on students' essay drafts.