HISTORY 3CP3 The Cit-Pat: Mod Hist Pub Hlth
Academic Year: Fall 2015
Instructor: Prof. Ellen Amster
Office: Chester New Hall 616
Phone: 905-525-9140 x 24144
Office Hours: By appointment.
- Course Objectives
- Textbooks, Materials & Fees
- Method of Assessment
- Policy on Missed Work, Extensions, and Late Penalties
- Additional Policies and Statements
- Topics and Readings
- Other Course Information
Is there a human right to health? A political right to health care? This course treats the origins of "public health," the notion of care for a public rather than the individual, from the 18th century to the present.
We begin with the Enlightenment political philosophies of Britain and France--how the citizen's body was understood to relate to his participation in the body politic, and how this ideal was realized in the French and American revolutions. We then follow the nineteenth-century evolution of the “citizen-patient,” in public hygiene, eugenics, and population policies, the public hospital, the health professions, and the legal regulation of medicine and pharmacy. Physicians have helped to plan cities, draft laws, shape families, and decide questions of life, death, and political rights. Epidemics have also forced social change, equitable access to natural resources, and new rights for the poor. We consider the contradictions of the "citizen-patient," for the colonized subjects of the French and British empires, the victims of Nazi occupation, and others. How do the goals of public health shift outside the nation-state framework?
Finally, we trace the internationalization of public health with the birth of the WHO and UNICEF. What are the promises and limitations of an inter-national approach to health vs. a new, emerging concept of the “global citizen”?
Course format will be lecture with some discussion.
Course materials include primary sources (medical monographs, political philosophy, cartoons, health reports, photographs, novels, journalism, maps), and secondary sources (selections of articles and books by historians, philosophers, and gender studies scholars).
The course is designed to introduce students to the history of public health and concepts in the social history of medicine, including epidemiology, eugenics, hysteria, legal medicine, psychiatry, and health policy. The readings are primary and secondary texts. Primary texts are contemporary or eyewitness accounts—writings from the period itself. Secondary readings are analytical, the writings of contemporary scholars and historians. A secondary goal of the course is to give students a critical framework through which to understand and critique contemporary public health issues.
The political history narrative will be provided in lecture. Readings and attendance are required and essential for success in the course.
Textbooks, Materials & Fees:
There is a required coursepack of articles on the A2L website, for you to download.
**YOU MUST BRING READINGS WITH YOU TO CLASS on the day it is due and be ready for in-class discussion every day.
The following books are required and available for purchase at the Mcmaster Campus Bookstore:
- Charlotte Perkins Gillman, The Yellow Wallpaper (any edition ok)
- Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, the Original 1818 text, edited by D.L. MacDonald and Kathleen Scherf (you can buy 2nd or 3rd edition).
- Paul Farmer, Jim Yong Kim, Arthur Kleinman, and Matthew Basilico, Reimagining Global Health: An Introduction (University of California, 2013).
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract (any edition ok)
- Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, Penguin (Mentor) edition.
- Tom Koch, Disease Maps: Epidemics on the Ground (2011).
Method of Assessment:
There will be two formal essays (3 pages and 5 pages), group discussion assignments and comment papers (1 page each), and one short written research project (3 pages maximum).
*All reading is required. You must bring the readings with you to class in preparation for class discussion.
*All written work must be typed in 12 point font, double-spaced with 1 inch margins. No papers can be accepted over email. All papers must be submitted as a hard copy (paper copy).
*Late formal papers will be graded down. The lateness policy is as follows: if the essay is turned in after the due date, it will be graded down 1 letter grade. It can be turned in up to 2 weeks after the due date. After 2 weeks it will not be accepted at all. Comment papers, the research assignment, and group work will not be accepted late. It must be turned in by the author in hard copy during the class period assigned, or not at all.
*For the format of your written work, consult the guidelines for writing history essays on the A2L site.
Assignments for the course and their respective weights are as follows:
|Participation (Attendance, in-class discussion||20%|
|Comment Papers and Group Work||20%|
|Short Public Health Research Assignment||10%|
|Essay #1, Frankenstein||25%|
|Essay #2, Final Global health paper||25%|
Please Note the Following Policies and Statements:
You are expected to exhibit honesty and use ethical behaviour in all aspects of the learning process. Academic credentials you earn are rooted in principles of honesty and academic integrity.
Academic dishonesty is to knowingly act or fail to act in a way that results or could result in unearned academic credit or advantage. This behaviour can result in serious consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment, loss of credit with a notation on the transcript (notation reads: "Grade of F assigned for academic dishonesty"), and/or suspension or expulsion from the university.
It is your responsibility to understand what constitutes academic dishonesty. For information on the various types of academic dishonesty please refer to the Academic Integrity Policy, located at www.mcmaster.ca/academicintegrity
The following illustrates only three forms of academic dishonesty:
- Plagiarism, e.g. the submission of work that is not one’s own or for which other credit has been obtained.
- Improper collaboration in group work.
- Copying or using unauthorized aids in tests and examinations.
Email correspondence policy
It is the policy of the Faculty of Humanities that all email communication sent from students to instructors (including TAs), and from students to staff, must originate from each student’s own McMaster University email account. This policy protects confidentiality and confirms the identity of the student. Instructors will delete emails that do not originate from a McMaster email account.
Modification of course outlines
The University reserves the right to change dates and/or deadlines etc. for any or all courses in the case of an emergency situation or labour disruption or civil unrest/disobedience, etc. If a modification becomes necessary, reasonable notice and communication with the students will be given with an explanation and the opportunity to comment on changes. Any significant changes should be made in consultation with the Department Chair.
McMaster Student Absence Form (MSAF)
In the event of an absence for medical or other reasons, students should review and follow the Academic Regulation in the Undergraduate Calendar Requests for Relief for Missed Academic Term Work. Please note these regulations have changed beginning Fall 2015. You can find information at mcmaster.ca/msaf/. If you have any questions about the MSAF, please contact your Associate Dean's office.
Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities
Students who require academic accommodation must contact Student Accessibility Services (SAS) to make arrangements with a Program Coordinator. Academic accommodations must be arranged for each term of study. Student Accessibility Services can be contacted by phone 905-525-9140 ext. 28652 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. For further information, consult McMaster University's Policy for Academic Accommodation of Students with Disabilities.
Academic Accommodation for Religious, Indigenous and Spiritual Observances
Students requiring academic accommodation based on religion and spiritual observances should follow the procedures set out in the Course Calendar or by their respective Faculty. In most cases, the student should contact his or her professor or academic advisor as soon as possible to arrange accommodations for classes, assignments, tests and examinations that might be affected by a religious holiday or spiritual observance.
Topics and Readings:
Schedule of Topics and Readings
Theme 1: Bodies and Kings in Pre-modern Society
Thursday, September 10 Introduction and Ebola as a Public Health Failure
Assignment: In-class discussion, lecture.
Monday, September 14 Pre-modern Medicine--the King’s Body, the Church as Healer, and the Hôtel-Dieu
Reading Due: Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The King’s Two Bodies, p. 7-23. (coursepack)
Nicole Hochner, “A Sixteenth-Century Manifesto for Social Mobility or the Body Politic Metaphor in Mutation” (coursepack)
Theme 2: Birth of the Citizen-Patient
Thursday, September 17 The Nature of Man and the Question of Sovereignty
Reading Due: John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government,
--Chapter I “Of the State of Nature” and
--Chapter IX, “Of the Ends of Political Society and Government.”
A.N. Williams, “Physician, Philosopher, and Paediatrician: John Locke’s Practice of Child
Health Care,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2006 Jan; 91(1): 85-89.
Monday, September 21 The Citizen-Patient in the French and American Revolutions
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, Book one.
Dora Weiner, The Citizen-Patient in Revolutionary and Imperial Paris, p. 3-10. [coursepack]
Theme 3: Health in the Industrial Age
Thursday, September 24 The Industrial Revolution: Disease and Health in the Nineteenth-Century City
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, “Manifesto of the Communist Party,” p. 473-491. (coursepack).
Thomas Malthus, “An Essay on the Principle of Population” p. 1-11, 23-31, 36-48. (1798).
Jonathan Swift, “A Modest Proposal” (1729)
Assignment for next time, Comment paper #1:
Using the Marx, Malthus, Swift and Fourier (Fourier is assigned for Monday)
answer these two questions for EACH author:
--Why are there poor people with not enough to eat?
--What should be done about it?
Monday September 28 The Poor, the Working Class, the Nation, or Society-as-Body? Theories of Population Health
Charles Fourier, “Theory of Society,” from Harmonium Man [coursepack]
Due in class: Comment Paper #1
Theme 4: Death is a Social Disease: Epidemiology and Social Justice
Thursday, October 1 Disease and Social Justice: Réné Villermé, Edwin Chadwick, and Rudolph Virchow
Reading due: Selections from Edwin Chadwick’s Sanitary Report (1842), p. 1-6. [coursepack].
Selections from Christopher Hamlin, Public Health and Social Justice in the Age of Chadwick: Britain, 1800-1854,159-170, 184-187. [coursepack]
J. P. Mackenbach, “Politics is nothing but medicine at a larger scale: reflections on public health’s biggest idea,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2009, 63: 181-184. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20720916?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
“Rudolf Virchow on the typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia: an introduction and translation” http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10778374/asset/1467-9566.ep10778374.pdf;jsessionid=7223962821DB051EE234A586A88D1A69.f03t03?v=1&t=i9oi2unj&s=e55b8746d8ca9c36c4a092b357fdf2b45ddc2174
Monday, October 5 The Birth of Epidemiology and John Snow
Reading due: Tom Koch, Disease Maps, p. 118-163.
In-class work on Primary Source Research Assignment: Instructions will be provided in class. Be sure you have a computer that is wi-fi enabled for class today, or share with a friend. We will need the internet. YOU WILL NEED TO DO ALL THE KOCH READING, so be ready. *The write-up is due Thursday, October 8 in Class.
Thursday, October 8 The City and Public Hygiene Reforms, the “Sanitarians”
Reading: Tom Koch, Disease Maps 164-215.
*HOT TIP—your first formal paper is about Frankenstein, so you can get ahead by reading ahead in the novel. Also by watching the terrific 1994 film “Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein,” which is faithful to the book.
Due in class: Turn in the writeup for your Primary-Source Research Assignment. No late assignments can be accepted!
*Midterm Recess* October 12-October 17
Theme 5: Caring for the Citizen-Patient: From Vaccine to the Welfare State
Monday, October 19 Vaccination and Anti-Vaccination, Law and Medicine
Reading due: Frankenstein, p. 1-150.
Thursday, October 22 The Welfare State: The Social Contract Made Flesh
Reading due: Frankenstein, Finish the Novel.
Assignment due October 29: Formal Essay #1, topic handed out in class. Will also be posted to A2L.
Theme 6: The Good, the Bad, and the Female: Biology, Criminality, and Sex
Monday, October 26 The Criminal, the Penitentiary, and the Idea of Social Degeneracy
Reading due: Part of Introduction and Appendix A from Frankenstein, “The Education of Mary Shelley: Godwin and Wollstonecraft” p. 11-17, and 245-263.
Michel Foucault, Chapter 1 “The Body of the Condemned,” from Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, p. 3-31 [coursepack]
Selections from Cesare Lombroso’s Criminal Man, 161-162, 202-220, 232, 331-337. [coursepack]
Thursday, October 29 Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein
Due in class: Formal Essay #1
Monday, November 2 The Female Citizen: Sex and Women’s Rights
Reading due: Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, “Discourses of Sexuality and Subjectivity: The New Woman, 1870-1936” [coursepack], p. 264-280.
Cesare Lombroso, Criminal Woman, the Prostitute, and the Normal Woman, 82-88, 135-143. [coursepack]
Thursday, November 5 Hysteria and The Yellow Wallpaper
Reading due: Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wall-Paper, just the Charlotte Perkins Gilman story.
Thomas Laycock, A Treatise on the nervous diseases of women; comprising an inquiry into the nature, causes, and treatment of spinal and hysterical disorders, [coursepack]
- Table of contents [skim]: p. xi-xxvi
- part 1 chapter 1, p. 5-13 “Principles and Definitions”
- part 1 Chapter 5, p. 76-84 “The Mental and Corporeal Peculiarities of Woman”
Read this digitized version of the text (you turn the pages like a real book): https://archive.org/stream/treatiseonnervou00layc#page/n11/mode/2up
Assignment for next time, Comment paper #2: Explore the Digital Humanities project, “The Eugenics Archive”-- http://eugenicsarchive.ca.
- Read the entry on Sir Francis Galton (in “Players” section)
- Read at least 2 other “Players” entries. Click on “Connections.” Notice how these people connected to a series of institutions and ideas. The cloud moves!
- Watch one of the Survivors’ Videos
- Click the map section and compare eugenics movements in 2 countries
- Choose at least one other area of the website to explore yourself
- ===Write a one page comment paper about what you read and what you learned about Eugenics from this site.
Theme 7: Eugenics—Social Darwinism and a Science of Human Society?
Monday, November 9 The Sciences of Eugenics from Darwin’s Evolution
Reading due: Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species, (p. 74-112, 129-132, 263-269, 323-327, 346-353).
Due in class: Comment paper #2.
Assignment For Thursday, Comment paper #3: Choose ONE of the possible 4 readings and prepare a 2 page comment paper in response to the following questions:
1. What is the author’s argument? Summarize in one paragraph.
2. Is this historical case an application of one or more of Darwin’s theories, and if so, which concepts?
3. What effect did Darwin’s ideas produce on the medical authorities of this time and place—what is “eugenics” in your time and place?
Thursday, November 12 Historical Case Studies in Eugenics
*Group meetings in class time. Due in class, Comment Paper #3
Reading 1: Eugenics in Canada, Sexual Sterilization of the “Unfit”
Erika Dyck, Facing Eugenics: Reproduction, Sterilization, and the Politics of Choice, p. 3-26, 169-197. (second article describes the case of Leilani Muir). (coursepack)
Reading 2: Nationalism as Eugenics--Nazi Germany
Michael Burleigh and Wolfgang Wippermann, The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945, p. 23-73. [coursepack]
Reading 3: A Eugenic Approach to Disease and Population Health
Melbourne Tapper, “An ‘Anthropathology’ of the ‘American Negro’:
Anthropology, Genetics, and the New Racial Science, 1940-1952.” (coursepack)
Reading 4: “Positive” Eugenics and Puériculture in France
William Schneider, Quality and Quantity: The Quest for Biological Regeneration in Twentieth-Century France, p. 55-83.
Theme 8: The Vulnerable Citizen: Children, Orphans, and the Insane
Monday, November 16 Madness and the Law: Reason, Individual Rights, the Social “Duty of Care”
+Court proceedings of the British Crown vs. Sarah Dickinson, 1844. From the digitized records of the proceedings of Old Bailey, London’s Central Criminal Court , 1674-1913, see the link here and on A2L [coursepack]
+Dorothea Lynde Dix, Selections from Soliciting a State Hospital for the Protection and Cure of the Insane, Submitted to the General Assembly of North Carolina, 8-9, 14-15, 16-17, 26-28, 39-41. [coursepack]
+Oliver Sachs “Asylum” and Christopher Payne “The State Mental Hospitals” from Asylum: Inside the Closed World of State Mental Hospitals, p. 1-15. [coursepack]
Thursday, November 19 Children of the Republic—Family and Citizens
Reading: Alisa Klaus, Selections from Every Child a Lion: The Origins of Maternal and Infant Health Policy in the United States and France, 1890-1920, p. 10-13, 43-89. [coursepack]
Assignment for next time: Choose ONE OF THE FOUR readings for next time, make written notes about the article for yourself and get ready for group work with others. In your notes, answer the following:
- What is the author’s argument? Summarize in one paragraph.
- What is the public health issue or issues in this time and place?
- How did the colonial situation produce unique outcomes, perhaps different from what we have studied so far? What influence does colonialism have on public health in your historical example?
Theme 9: Colonial Empire and Public Health
Monday November 23 Case Studies in Colonial Health and Medicine
*Group work during class time, in-class preparation of Comment Paper #4, which is due Thursday, November 26. Instructions will be given in class.
Reading #1: Ellen Amster, “Harem Medicine and the Sleeping Child: Law, Traditional Pharmacology, and the Gender of Medical Authority,” and “A Midwife to Modernity: The Biopolitics of Colonial Welfare and Birthing a Scientific Moroccan Nation,” from Medicine and the Saints: Science, Islam, and the Colonial Encounter in Morocco, p. 142-208. (coursepack)
Reading #2: Richard Keller, “Pinel in the Maghreb: Liberation and Confinement in a Landscape of Sickness,” and “Shaping Colonial Psychiatry: Geographies of Innovation and Economies of Care,” from Colonial Madness: Psychiatry in French North Africa, p. 19-82. [coursepack]
Reading #3: Warwick Anderson, “The Military Basis of Colonial Public Health,” and “Late-Colonial Public Health and Filipino ‘Mimicry,’” from Colonial Pathologies: American Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Philippines, p. 45-73, 180-206. [coursepack]
Reading #4: Philippa Levine, “Colonial Medicine and the Project of Modernity” and “Diplomacy, Disease, Dissent,” from Prostitution, Race and Politics: Policing Venereal Disease in the British Empire, p. 61-119.
Thursday November 26 What is “Colonial” about Colonial Public Health?
Reading due: Reimagining Global Health, Chapter 3.
Due in class: Comment #4
Theme 10: World Wars and a New World Order: UN, WHO, and Global Health
Monday November 30 World War I, World War II, Birth of the WHO and the Nuremberg Code for Medical Experimentation
Reading due: Telford Taylor “Opening Statement of the Prosecution December 9, 1946,” from The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, p. 67-104. (coursepack)
Sharon Perley, Sev. Fluss, Zbigniew Bankowski, Francoise
Simon, “The Nuremberg Code: An International Overview,”
Leonard H. Glantz, “The Influence of the Nuremberg Code on U.S. Statutes and Reulations,” 183-200. (coursepack)
Thursday, December 3 Theories of Global Health, Discussion
Reimagining Global Health, Chapter 4 and 5.
Julio Frenk and Suerie Moon, “Governance Challenges in Global Health,” The New England Journal of Medicine, 2013: 368: 936-942.
Lawrence O. Gostin and Devi Sridnhar, “Global Health and the Law,” The New England Journal of Medicine, 2014; 370: 1732-1740.
Monday December 7 The Futures of Global Health
Final paper assignment—select one of these 4 contemporary global health issues below, then
- read the assigned reading listed here for your issue
- find at least 2 newspaper or magazine articles that address this question/debate.
- Use the readings listed under December 3 and any readings from the course you feel are relevant to compose a 5 page essay. In your essay:
- Explain the global health issue and why there is controversy or debate.
- Tell us--what larger themes does your issue raise that you see are connected to public health issues we have studied in the course?
- How does your issue raise some of the specific dilemmas of GLOBAL health that are different from the public health national histories we have studied? What is new about global health itself, in your view?
- Issue #1: International gestational surrogacy—exploitation, medical tourism, or reproductive rights?
Reading: “The Global Womb,” “India: A Global Baby Factory,” and “Reproductive Justice and Reproductive Liberty,” all from France Winddance Twine, Outsourcing the Womb: Race, Class, and Gestational Surrogacy in a Global Market. (p. 1-15, 54-61, 78-82).
- Issue #2: Global pharmaceuticals—International Villain or Life-Giving Hero?
Reading: Adriana Petryna and Arthur Kleinman, “The Pharmaceutical Nexus” from Global Pharmaceuticals: Ethics, Markets, Practices. (p. 1-32).
- Issue #3: Médecins sans Frontières and Ebola—What does it mean, a “Doctor Without Borders?”
Reading: Peter Redfield, “A Time of Crisis,” from Life in Crisis: The Ethical Journey of Doctors Without Borders, p. 11-36.
“Ebola Crisis Brutally Exposed Failures of the Aid System, says MSF,” The Guardian. Monday, March 23, 2015
A timeline of Ebola events and responses: https://www.academia.edu/14171226/Monica_H._Green_and_Nicholas_Goettl_Global_History_of_Health_-_Teaching_Notes_on_Ebola_11_23_2014_
- Issue #4: Evidence-Based Medicine and Global Health—The Ethics of Exporting the Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT)
Reading: Vincanne Adams, “Evidence-based Global Public Health: Subjects, Profits, Erasures,” from ed. Joao Biehl and Adriana Petryna, When People Come First: Critical Studies in Global Health, p. 54-90.
Final essays are due no later than December 18 at 4:30 p.m. in hard copy, in the History Department drop box outside the department office. It is in front of you when you exit the elevator.
Late essays cannot be accepted.
For format, consult the Guidelines for Writing History essays on A2L.
************************Have a great break!*************************
Other Course Information:
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